Tuesday, April 19, 2011
Monday, April 18, 2011
Makli Hills are located in the
Makli is the common resting place of a million, both nobles and commoners. In this resting place are the grave of kings, queens, governors, Sufi saints, Scholars, Philosophers, poets, soldiers and military commanders of a by-gone era. That era was renowned for its culture and learning. There are tombs and mausoleums date back to 16th to 18th century. Many of there tombs belongs to kings, queens and governors and were probably built to their own design while they were still alive.
Makli graveyard is an ancient symbol of architect, all the monuments, shrines are of high quality in stone and brick. These monuments are master piece with their stone carving, surface traceries, and color tiling. some graves of rulers are notable specimens of architecture. The grave stones and mausoleums stones represent the different eras and dynasties. There are monuments of Summa period (14th to 16th centuries), the Tarkhan & Arghun period (16th century), and the Moghul period (16th to 18th centuries).
he artwork on the graves and the artisan work is delightful and only one of its kind. This graveyard contains countless graves, rectangular in shapes and inscribed with glorious Islamic calligraphy, the vault domes and arches. The quality of this structure is that these are strong as well beautiful. The main stone using in the construction of these monuments are marble and granites which are generations lasting. There is resemblance in skill of construction in these monuments and are either built in brick or stone. The bricks are dark red and so perfectly baked that they look like metal and break as glass. Colored enamel tiles have also been used lavishly to adorn the brick structures. The stone structures are prominent for their carving and tracery which has been truly described as lace-work in stone. The mausoleums are mainly made of sandstone and exquisitely carved with geometric and floral designs. The carvings are so regular they seem to have been stamped into the stone. Some of the mausoleums are being restored. The foundations of these buildings are made of stone.
This graveyard reveals the history and craftsmanship of Sammas, Arghuns and Tarkhans and Mughals dynasties, spanning over four centuries.
The first Mughal group includes the tombs of Jan (or Jani) Beg, Ghazali Beg, Tughril Beg, Jan Baba, and others. North to this is the imposing mausoleum of Nawab Isa Khan, the Mughal Governor of Sindh. Its designed a low building little to east, houses the tombs of the women this part of house segregated for women. There is a fine view from here across the lake of the Thatta city . Jan Baba tombs lies near Isa Khan’s tomb covered with design as fragile as the spider web.
The second group belongs to Tarkhan and Arghun includes the tombs of Isa Khan Tarkhan (the elder), Baqi Beg Tarkhan and Ahinsa Bai among others. Amongst the more important tombs is that of the Mirza Jami Beg. Built in 1599 fir the last of the Turkhan rulers, it is made of glazed bricks. The tombs of his son Mirza Ghazi Beg Tarkhan is located next to the his tomb.close to his tomb is the tomb of Mirza Tughril Beg who was commander in chief of the Turkhan army. The tomb of Mirza Bagi Beg Turkhan and Ahinsa Bai extend over several enclosures. Their inside walls are carved in the tracery method of roses and sunflowers.
And the third group on extreme north relates to the Summa and comprises the tombs of Jam Nizamuddin, Mubarak Khan, Malik Rajpal and others.The tomb of the Samma King, Jam Nizam al-Din (reigned 1461–1509), is an impressive square structure built of sandstone and decorated with floral and geometric medallions.
Locals believe Makli means Little Mecca or
, some relate the name after a pious women “Mai Makli”, whose prayers saved Thatta from conquest of Sultan Feroz Shah Tughlaq, till she lived. Mai Makli’s grave is simple, without carving or headstone and covered with a green cloth. Legends abound about its founding, but it is generally believed that the cemetery grew around the shrine of the fourteenth-century Sufi, Hamad Jamali. Surrounding the ancient graves at Makli Hills there are many shrines devoted to various religious figures. Mecca
Makli Necropolis is listed with the United Nations World Heritage. It was inscribed on the World Heritage List in 1981under the name, Historical Monuments of Thatta.
K2 is derived from the notation used by the Great Trigonometric Survey. Thomas Montgomerie made the first survey of the Karakoram and sketched the two most prominent peaks, labeling them K1 and K2 K2 is taken from the first letter of , and the number indicates that it was the second peak in the range to be measured. K2 is known as the Karakorum due to the difficulty of ascent and the 2nd highest fatality rate. K2 Mountain is believed by many to be the world's most difficult and dangerous climb. This is due to its more inclement weather and comparatively greater height from base to peak. K2 is also known as “ Savage Mountain ” which means “The Great Mountain”. This is local name of K-2, derived from two Balti words which mean big mountain. But widely it is known as K-2. Chogo RI
The traditional route to K2's base camp goes from Skardu, which is linked with
by a good road. From Skardu the route goes via Shigar-Dassu-Askole up to Concordia over the Baltoro glacier. Islamabad K2 has never been climbed in winter.The best trek season to climb k-2 is from April to October. It is typically climbed in June, July, or August.
K2 Mountain is very difficult to climb up that many people lost their lives in trying. For every four people who have reached the summit, one has died trying. As of July 2010, only 302 people have completed the ascent. At least 77 people have died attempting the climb. Because
K2 is prone to frequent and severe storms that make the already treacherous climbing conditions on its slopes even more challenging and make difficult functioning at such high elevations. That is the reason only a small fraction of people have reached the top.
First ascent was made by an Italian expedition Achille Compagnoni and Lino Lacedelli ion July 31, 1954. The team included a Pakistani member, Colonel Muhammad Ata-ullah, who had been a part of the 1953 American expedition. Also on the expedition were the famous Italian climber Walter Bonatti and Pakistani Hunza porter Mahdi, who proved vital role to the expedition's success in that he carried oxygen to 26,600 feet (8,100 m) for Lacedelli and Compagnoni.
All major climbing routes lie on the Pakistani side, which is also where the base camp is located.The standard route of ascent, used far more than any other route, is the Abruzzi Spur, located on the Pakistani side, first attempted by Luigi Amedeo, Duke of the
in 1909. This is the southeast ridge of the peak, rising above the Godwin Austen Glacier. The spur proper begins at an altitude of 5,400 m/17,700 ft, where Advanced Base Camp is usually placed. The route follows an alternating series of rock ribs, snow/ice fields, and some technical rock climbing on two famous features, "House's Chimney" and the "Black Pyramid." Above the Black Pyramid, dangerously exposed and difficult to navigate slopes lead to the easily visible "Shoulder", and thence to the summit. The last major obstacle is narrow couloirs known as the "Bottleneck”, which places climbers dangerously close to a wall of serac which form an ice cliff to the east of the summit. Abruzzi
Almost opposite from the Abruzzi Spur is the North Ridge which ascends the Chinese side of the peak. It is rarely climbed, partly due to very difficult access, involving crossing the
, which is a hazardous undertaking. This route, more technically difficult than the Abruzzi, ascends a long, steep, primarily rock ridge to high on the mountain (Camp IV, the "Eagle's Nest", 7,900 m/25,900 ft), and then crosses a dangerously slide-prone hanging glacier by a leftward climbing traverse, to reach a snow couloirs which accesses the summit. Shaksgam River
The major routes to have been climbed on the south side of the mountain.
1) West Ridge
2) West Face
3) Southwest Pillar
4) South Face
5) South-southeast Spur
For most of its climbing history,
K2 was not usually climbed with bottled oxygen. However the 2004 season saw a great increase in the use of oxygen: 28 of 47 summiteers used oxygen in that year. Acclimatization is essential when climbing without oxygen to avoid some degree of altitude sickness. K2's summit is well above the altitude at which high altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE), or high altitude cerebral edema (HACE) can occur above the 8000-metre altitude that marks the boundary of the "death zone."